A clinical trial or therapeutic trial is a scientific study conducted in a medical environment to assess the efficacy and safety of a molecule or method.
The “preclinical” phases (in the laboratory and on animals) are used to evaluate both the biological activity and the toxicity of the molecule.
The “clinical” phases (i.e. on human subjects) make it possible to better understand:
-the safety and the evolution of the molecule in the body (phase 1)
-the effectiveness of the molecule against the disease (phases II and III)
-the ongoing monitoring of the drug post-marketing as it is used in practice (phase IV)